• Activation of Nod2 signaling upon norovirus infection enhances antiviral immunity and susceptibility to colitis - (le 01/09/2023)

    Over 90% of epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis are caused by human noroviruses (NoVs), which persist in a substantial subset of people allowing their spread worldwide. This has led to a significant number of endemic cases and up to 70,000 children deaths in developing countries. NoVs are primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route. To date, studies have focused on the influence of the gut microbiota on enteric viral clearance by mucosal immunity. In this study, the use of mouse...

    • Ghaffar Muharram, Marion Thépaut, Pierre-Emmanuel Lobert, Teddy Grandjean, Olivier Boulard, Myriam Delacre, Emmrich Wakeford, Richard Wheeler, Lionel Franz Poulin, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Frank Lafont, Marie-Cécile Michallet, Didier Hober, Ken Cadwell, Mathias Chamaillard
  • NOD2 in monocytes negatively regulates macrophage development through TNFalpha - (le 07/07/2023)

    CONCLUSION: NOD2 negatively regulates a macrophage developmental program through a feed-forward loop that could be exploited for overcoming resistance to anti-TNF therapy in CD.

    • Camille Chauvin, Daniel Alvarez-Simon, Katarina Radulovic, Olivier Boulard, William Laine, Myriam Delacre, Nadine Waldschmitt, Elodie Segura, Jérome Kluza, Mathias Chamaillard, Lionel F Poulin
  • Characterisation of gut microbiota composition in patients with axial spondyloarthritis and its modulation by TNF inhibitor treatment - (le 24/03/2023)

    CONCLUSIONS: Several SpA patients' characteristics modulate the composition of gut microbiota as did TNFi treatment. Moreover, the abundance/prevalence of seven OTUs at baseline may be used as a novel non-invasive index that predicts the response to TNFi with greater accuracy than HLA-B27 status, CRP level and measures of disease activity.

    • Marie Vallier, Béatrice Segurens, Elise Larsonneur, Vincent Meyer, Stephanie Ferreira, Christophe Caloustian, Jean-François Deleuze, Maxime Dougados, Mathias Chamaillard, Corinne Miceli-Richard
  • Short- and Long-term Repercussions of Vancomycin on Immune Surveillance and the Efficacy of Antitumor Treatments - (le 23/03/2023)

    Although antibiotic is a major contributor to shifts in the intestinal flora that may persist for up to several months after cessation, it is now increasingly recognized that its prescription may differentially influence clinical outcome of different anticancer treatments. Intense clinical and basic research efforts aim then at gaining sufficient insights about how the cooperative action between the intestinal ecosystem and immune surveillance modulates the efficacy of anticancer treatments. In...

    • Thomas Paz Del Socorro, Marion Tonneau, David Pasquier, Mathias Chamaillard
  • Tirap controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosomal acidification - (le 08/03/2023)

    Progression of tuberculosis is tightly linked to a disordered immune balance, resulting in inability of the host to restrict intracellular bacterial replication and its subsequent dissemination. The immune response is mainly characterized by an orchestrated recruitment of inflammatory cells secreting cytokines. This response results from the activation of innate immunity receptors that trigger downstream intracellular signaling pathways involving adaptor proteins such as the TIR-containing...

    • Imène Belhaouane, Amine Pochet, Jonathan Chatagnon, Eik Hoffmann, Christophe J Queval, Nathalie Deboosère, Céline Boidin-Wichlacz, Laleh Majlessi, Valentin Sencio, Séverine Heumel, Alexandre Vandeputte, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Laurence Fievez, Fabrice Bureau, Yves Rouillé, François Trottein, Mathias Chamaillard, Priscille Brodin, Arnaud Machelart
  • Microbe-mediated intestinal NOD2 stimulation improves linear growth of undernourished infant mice - (le 23/02/2023)

    The intestinal microbiota is known to influence postnatal growth. We previously found that a strain of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (strain Lp^(WJL)) buffers the adverse effects of chronic undernutrition on the growth of juvenile germ-free mice. Here, we report that Lp^(WJL) sustains the postnatal growth of malnourished conventional animals and supports both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin production and activity. We have identified cell walls isolated from Lp^(WJL), as well as...

    • Martin Schwarzer, Umesh Kumar Gautam, Kassem Makki, Anne Lambert, Tomáš Brabec, Amélie Joly, Dagmar Šrůtková, Pierre Poinsot, Tereza Novotná, Stéphanie Geoffroy, Pascal Courtin, Petra Petr Hermanová, Renata C Matos, Jonathan J M Landry, Céline Gérard, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Tomáš Hudcovic, Hana Kozáková, Dominik Filipp, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier, Marek Šinkora, Noël Peretti, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Mathias Chamaillard, Hubert Vidal, Filipe De Vadder, François Leulier
  • The NLRP6 protein is very faintly expressed in several normal and cancerous epithelial cells and may be confused with an unrelated protein - (le 20/01/2023)

    Nod-Like Receptor Pyrin domain-containing protein 6 (NLRP6), a member of the Nucleotide-oligomerization domain-Like Receptor (NLR) family of proteins, assembles together with the ASC protein to form an inflammasome upon stimulation by bacterial lipoteichoic acid and double-stranded DNA. Besides its expression in myeloid cells, NLRP6 is also expressed in intestinal epithelial cells where it may contribute to the maintenance of gut homeostasis and negatively controls colorectal tumorigenesis....

    • Abdallah Mound, Gautier Goormachtigh, Fabrice Bray, Stéphanie Flament, Christian Rolando, Richard Ruez, Nathalie Martin, Amélie Decourcelle, Vanessa Dehennaut, Jean-Michel Saliou, Mathias Chamaillard, Corinne Abbadie
  • Use of 2,6-diaminopurine as a potent suppressor of UGA premature stop codons in cystic fibrosis - (le 15/01/2023)

    Nonsense mutations are responsible for around 10% of cases of genetic diseases, including cystic fibrosis. 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) has recently been shown to promote efficient readthrough of UGA premature stop codons. In this study, we show that DAP can correct a nonsense mutation in the Cftr gene in vivo in a new CF mouse model, in utero, and through breastfeeding, thanks, notably, to adequate pharmacokinetic properties. DAP turns out to be very stable in plasma and is distributed throughout...

    • Catherine Leroy, Sacha Spelier, Nadège Charlene Essonghe, Virginie Poix, Rebekah Kong, Patrick Gizzi, Claire Bourban, Séverine Amand, Christine Bailly, Romain Guilbert, David Hannebique, Philippe Persoons, Gwenaëlle Arhant, Anne Prévotat, Philippe Reix, Dominique Hubert, Michèle Gérardin, Mathias Chamaillard, Natalia Prevarskaya, Sylvie Rebuffat, George Shapovalov, Jeffrey Beekman, Fabrice Lejeune
  • The extracellular matrix controls stem cell specification and crypt morphology in the developing and adult mouse gut - (le 09/11/2022)

    The rapid renewal of the epithelial gut lining is fuelled by stem cells that reside at the base of intestinal crypts. The signal transduction pathways and morphogens that regulate intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation have been extensively characterised. In contrast, although extracellular matrix (ECM) components form an integral part of the intestinal stem cell niche, their direct influence on the cellular composition is less well understood. We set out to systematically compare...

    • Rana Ramadan, Valérie M Wouters, Sanne M van Neerven, Nina E de Groot, Tania Martins Garcia, Vanessa Muncan, Olivia D Franklin, Michelle Battle, Karen Sue Carlson, Joshua Leach, Owen J Sansom, Olivier Boulard, Mathias Chamaillard, Louis Vermeulen, Jan Paul Medema, David J Huels
  • Oral supplementation with selected Lactobacillus acidophilus triggers IL-17-dependent innate defense response, activation of innate lymphoid cells type 3 and improves colitis - (le 20/10/2022)

    Live biotherapeutic products constitute an emerging therapeutic approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a constituent of the human microbiota with probiotic potential, that is illustrated by improvement of intestinal inflammation and antimicrobial activity against several pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory properties of the L. acidophilus strain BIO5768 at steady state and upon acute inflammation. Supplementation of naïve...

    • Jiří Hrdý, Aurélie Couturier-Maillard, Denise Boutillier, Carmen Lapadatescu, Philippe Blanc, Jan Procházka, Bruno Pot, Bernhard Ryffel, Corinne Grangette, Mathias Chamaillard
  • NOD-like receptors in asthma - (le 03/10/2022)

    Asthma is an extremely prevalent chronic inflammatory disease of the airway where innate and adaptive immune systems participate collectively with epithelial and other structural cells to cause airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus overproduction, airway narrowing, and remodeling. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are a family of intracellular innate immune sensors that detect microbe-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns,...

    • Daniel Alvarez-Simon, Saliha Ait Yahia, Patricia de Nadai, Camille Audousset, Mathias Chamaillard, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Anne Tsicopoulos
  • Harnessing the Vnn1 pantetheinase pathway boosts short chain fatty acids production and mucosal protection in colitis - (le 29/09/2022)

    CONCLUSION: The induction of Vnn1/VNN1 during colitis in mouse and human is a compensatory mechanism to reinforce the mucosal barrier. Therefore, enhancement of vitamin B(5)-driven metabolism should improve mucosal healing and might increase the efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy.

    • Virginie Millet, Thomas Gensollen, Michael Maltese, Melanie Serrero, Nathalie Lesavre, Christophe Bourges, Christophe Pitaval, Sophie Cadra, Lionel Chasson, Thien Phong Vu Man, Marion Masse, Juan Jose Martinez-Garcia, Fabrice Tranchida, Laetitia Shintu, Konrad Mostert, Erick Strauss, Patricia Lepage, Mathias Chamaillard, Achille Broggi, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Jean-Charles Grimaud, Philippe Naquet, Franck Galland
  • A Protective Role of NOD2 on Oxazolone-induced Intestinal Inflammation Through IL-1β-mediated Signalling Pathway - (le 02/08/2022)

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that Nod2 signalling may prevent pathological conversion of T helper cells for maintenance of tissue homeostasis.

    • Thomas Secher, Aurélie Couturier, Ludovic Huot, Helene Bouscayrol, Teddy Grandjean, Olivier Boulard, David Hot, Bernhard Ryffel, Mathias Chamaillard
  • Diurnal Interplay between Epithelium Physiology and Gut Microbiota as a Metronome for Orchestrating Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis - (le 28/05/2022)

    The behavior and physiology of most organisms are temporally coordinated and aligned with geophysical time by a complex interplay between the master and peripheral clocks. Disruption of such rhythmic physiological activities that are hierarchically organized has been linked to a greater risk of developing diseases ranging from cancer to metabolic syndrome. Herein, we summarize the molecular clockwork that is employed by intestinal epithelial cells to anticipate environmental changes such as...

    • Juan Jose Martínez-García, Dominique Rainteau, Lydie Humbert, Antonin Lamaziere, Philippe Lesnik, Mathias Chamaillard
  • Virulent Bacteria as Inflammatory and Immune Co-Factor in Colon Carcinogenesis: Evidence From Two Monozygotic Patients and Validation in CRC Patient and Healthy Cohorts - (le 22/11/2021)

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a common disease, the incidence of which is increasing according to Western lifestyle; it remains to have a poor prognosis. Western nutriments are presumed to induce mild inflammation within the colonic mucosa, resulting in the accumulation of DNA alterations in colonocytes through a multistage carcinogenesis process. This suggests that most CRCs are related to the environment. Of interest, fecal microbiota composition has been shown yielding a novel approach...

    • Iradj Sobhani, Emma Bergsten, Cecile Charpy, Mathias Chamaillard, Denis Mestivier